# Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design: A Comprehensive and Updated Textbook for Civil Engineers

## Reinforced Concrete Mechanics And Design 7th Edition Pdf Free 15

## Introduction

Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world. It consists of concrete that is reinforced with steel bars or wires to improve its strength and ductility. Reinforced concrete can be used to build various types of structures, such as buildings, bridges, dams, tunnels, tanks, etc.

## Reinforced Concrete Mechanics And Design 7th Edition Pdf Free 15

If you are interested in learning more about reinforced concrete mechanics and design, you should definitely check out the book Reinforced Concrete Mechanics And Design by James G. MacGregor and James K. Wight. This book is considered as one of the best textbooks on the subject, as it covers both theoretical and practical aspects of reinforced concrete in a clear and comprehensive manner.

The 7th edition of this book was published in 2015, and it features many updates and improvements from the previous editions. Some of the new features include:

New examples and problems that reflect current design practice

New chapters on strut-and-tie models, torsion design, seismic design, durability design, and sustainability

New sections on high-strength concrete, fiber-reinforced polymer reinforcement, self-consolidating concrete, precast concrete, prestressed concrete, etc.

New illustrations, photographs, tables, charts, graphs, etc. that enhance the visual presentation of the material

New online resources that provide additional information and learning tools

The best part is that you can get a free pdf copy of this book online. All you have to do is click on this link https://www.academia.edu/37168701/Reinforced_Concrete_Mechanics_and_Design_7th_Edition and download it to your device. You can also access other related books and papers on this website.

## Reinforced Concrete Basics

### Materials and Properties

Before we dive into the design of reinforced concrete structures, let us first review some basic concepts about the materials and properties of reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete is composed of two main ingredients: concrete and steel. Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, sand, and aggregates (such as gravel, crushed stone, etc.). Steel is a metal alloy that consists mainly of iron and carbon. Both materials have their own advantages and disadvantages, and they work together to form a composite material that has better performance than either material alone.

Some of the main properties of concrete and steel that affect their behavior in reinforced concrete are:

Property

Concrete

Steel

Strength

Concrete has high compressive strength but low tensile strength. The compressive strength depends on the mix proportions, curing conditions, age, etc. The tensile strength is usually ignored in design, as it is much lower than the compressive strength.

Steel has high tensile strength and moderate compressive strength. The strength depends on the type, grade, and manufacturing process of the steel. Steel can also yield (deform permanently) under high stress without breaking.

Stiffness

Concrete has low stiffness (or modulus of elasticity), which means it deforms easily under load. The stiffness depends on the strength, density, and age of the concrete.

Steel has high stiffness, which means it resists deformation under load. The stiffness depends on the type and grade of the steel.

Ductility

Concrete has low ductility, which means it cannot sustain large deformations without cracking or failing. The ductility depends on the mix proportions, curing conditions, reinforcement ratio, etc.

Steel has high ductility, which means it can sustain large deformations without losing its strength or toughness. The ductility depends on the type, grade, and manufacturing process of the steel.

Bond

Concrete has good bond with steel, which means they adhere well to each other and transfer stress between them. The bond depends on the surface condition, shape, size, and spacing of the steel bars or wires.

Steel has good bond with concrete, which means they adhere well to each other and transfer stress between them. The bond depends on the surface condition, shape, size, and spacing of the steel bars or wires.

Thermal Expansion

Concrete has low thermal expansion, which means it does not expand or contract much due to temperature changes. The thermal expansion depends on the type and amount of aggregates in the concrete.

Steel has high thermal expansion, which means it expands or contracts significantly due to temperature changes. The thermal expansion depends on the type and grade of the steel.

Durability

Concrete has moderate durability, which means it can resist deterioration due to environmental factors such as moisture, chemicals, corrosion, etc. The durability depends on the mix proportions, curing conditions, cover depth, etc.

Steel has low durability, which means it can easily deteriorate due to environmental factors such as moisture, chemicals, corrosion, etc. The durability depends on the type, grade, coating, protection, etc. of the steel.

As you can see from the table above, concrete and steel have different properties that complement each other in reinforced concrete. Concrete provides resistance to compression and protection to steel from corrosion. Steel provides resistance to tension and ductility to concrete. By combining these two materials in a proper way, we can create a reinforced concrete structure that can withstand various types of loads and stresses.

### Design Principles and Methods

The design of reinforced concrete structures involves applying some basic principles and methods that ensure safety, serviceability, economy, and aesthetics. Some of these principles and methods are:

Limit state design: This is a design philosophy that considers two types of limit states: ultimate limit states (ULS) and serviceability limit states (SLS). ULS are related to the collapse or failure of the structure under extreme loads or events (such as dead load, live load, wind load earthquake load fire load etc.). SLS are related to the normal functioning or performance of the structure under normal loads or conditions (such as deflection cracking vibration corrosion etc.). The design should ensure that both types of limit states are satisfied with adequate safety factors or margins.

## Strength design: This is a design method that is based on the ultimate strength of the materials and the failure modes of the structure. The design should ensure that the applied loads do not exceed the capacity of the structure to resist them. The capacity of the structure is determined by applying a load factor to the nominal loads and a strength reduction factor to the nominal strengths. The load factor accounts for the uncertainty and variability of the loads, and the strength reduction factor accounts for the uncertainty and variability of the strengths. The design should satisfy the following equation: $$\phi R_n \geq U$$ where $\phi$ is the strength reduction factor, $R_n$ is the nominal strength, and $U$ is the factored load. Elastic design: This is a design method that is based on the elastic behavior of the materials and the service loads of the structure. The design should ensure that the applied loads do not cause excessive deformations or stresses in the structure. The deformation or stress of the structure is determined by applying a modulus of elasticity and a stress-strain relationship to the materials. The design should satisfy the following equation: $$\sigma = E \epsilon$$ where $\sigma$ is the stress, $E$ is the modulus of elasticity, and $\epsilon$ is the strain. Strut-and-tie model: This is a design method that is based on simplifying complex reinforced concrete structures into truss-like models composed of struts (compression members), ties (tension members), and nodes (joints). The design should ensure that each member and node can resist the internal forces acting on them. The internal forces are determined by applying equilibrium and compatibility conditions to the model. The design should satisfy the following equations: $$\sum F_x = 0$$ $$\sum F_y = 0$$ $$\sum M_z = 0$$ where $F_x$, $F_y$, and $M_z$ are the internal forces in x, y, and z directions, respectively. Reinforced Concrete Applications

### Beams and Slabs

Beams and slabs are common types of reinforced concrete structures that are used to support loads and span distances. Beams are linear elements that are subjected to bending, shear, and torsion. Slabs are planar elements that are subjected to bending and shear. Beams and slabs can be designed for different types of loading conditions, such as uniformly distributed load, concentrated load, triangular load, etc.

The design of beams and slabs involves determining the required dimensions, reinforcement, and detailing of the cross-sections. Some of the main steps are:

Determine the effective span: This is the distance between the points of zero moment or maximum deflection in the beam or slab. The effective span depends on the type and location of supports, such as simply supported, fixed, continuous, cantilevered, etc.

Determine the factored load: This is the load that is used for strength design. The factored load is obtained by multiplying the service load by a load factor.

Determine the factored moment: This is the moment that is used for strength design. The factored moment is obtained by multiplying the factored load by a moment coefficient or by using a moment diagram.

Determine the required reinforcement area: This is the area of steel bars or wires that is needed to resist the factored moment and provide adequate ductility. The required reinforcement area is obtained by using a flexural design equation or a moment-curvature relationship.

Determine the required reinforcement spacing: This is the distance between the steel bars or wires that is needed to satisfy the minimum and maximum reinforcement ratios, the minimum and maximum spacing limits, and the bond and anchorage requirements. The required reinforcement spacing is obtained by dividing the required reinforcement area by the cross-sectional area of a single bar or wire.

Determine the required shear reinforcement: This is the amount of steel stirrups or links that is needed to resist the factored shear force and prevent shear failure. The required shear reinforcement is obtained by using a shear design equation or a shear stress-strain relationship.

Determine the required torsion reinforcement: This is the amount of steel bars or wires that is needed to resist the factored torsion moment and prevent torsion failure. The required torsion reinforcement is obtained by using a torsion design equation or a torsion stress-strain relationship.

Determine the required detailing: This is the arrangement and placement of the reinforcement that is needed to ensure the proper performance and durability of the beam or slab. The required detailing includes the type, size, shape, and grade of the reinforcement, the cover depth, the bend radius, the splice length, the development length, the anchorage length, the lap length, the bar spacing, the stirrup spacing, the crack control, the corrosion protection, etc.

### Columns and Walls

Columns and walls are common types of reinforced concrete structures that are used to support axial loads and bending moments. Columns are vertical elements that are usually slender and have a rectangular or circular cross-section. Walls are vertical elements that are usually thick and have a rectangular or polygonal cross-section. Columns and walls can be designed for different types of loading conditions, such as concentric load, eccentric load, biaxial load, etc.

The design of columns and walls involves determining the required dimensions, reinforcement, and detailing of the cross-sections. Some of the main steps are:

Determine the effective length: This is the distance between the points of zero moment or maximum deflection in the column or wall. The effective length depends on the type and location of supports, such as pinned, fixed, braced, unbraced, etc.

Determine the factored load: This is the load that is used for strength design. The factored load is obtained by multiplying the service load by a load factor.

Determine the factored moment: This is the moment that is used for strength design. The factored moment is obtained by multiplying the factored load by an eccentricity or by using a moment diagram.

Determine the required cross-sectional area: This is the area of concrete and steel that is needed to resist the factored axial load and provide adequate stability. The required cross-sectional area is obtained by using an axial load design equation or a stress-block diagram.

Determine the required reinforcement ratio: This is the ratio of steel area to concrete area that is needed to resist the factored bending moment and provide adequate ductility. The required reinforcement ratio is obtained by using a flexural design equation or a moment-curvature relationship.

Determine the required reinforcement arrangement: This is the distribution and orientation of the steel bars or wires that is needed to satisfy the minimum and maximum reinforcement ratios, the minimum and maximum spacing limits, and the bond and anchorage requirements. The required reinforcement arrangement includes the number, size, shape, and grade of the longitudinal bars, the number, size, shape, and grade of the transverse bars, the corner bars, the confinement bars, etc.

Determine the required detailing: This is the arrangement and placement of the reinforcement that is needed to ensure the proper performance and durability of the column or wall. The required detailing includes the type, size, shape, and grade of the reinforcement, the cover depth, the bend radius, the splice length, the development length, the anchorage length, the lap length, the bar spacing, the crack control, the corrosion protection, etc.

### Foundations and Retaining Walls

Foundations and retaining walls are common types of reinforced concrete structures that are used to transfer loads from superstructures to substructures or to retain soil or water. Foundations are horizontal elements that are usually buried in the ground and have a rectangular or circular shape. Retaining walls are vertical elements that are usually exposed to the air and have a rectangular or trapezoidal shape. Foundations and retaining walls can be designed for different types of loading conditions, such as dead load, live load, soil pressure, water pressure, etc.

The design of foundations and retaining walls involves determining the required dimensions, reinforcement, and detailing of the cross-sections. Some of the main steps are:

Determine the bearing capacity: This is the maximum load per unit area that can be supported by the soil or rock without causing excessive settlement or failure. The bearing capacity depends on the type and properties of the soil or rock, the depth and shape of foundation or retaining wall, the type and magnitude of the applied load, etc.

Determine the factored load: This is the load that is used for strength design. The factored load is obtained by multiplying the service load by a load factor.

Determine the factored moment: This is the moment that is used for strength design. The factored moment is obtained by multiplying the factored load by an eccentricity or by using a moment diagram.

Determine the required cross-sectional area: This is the area of concrete and steel that is needed to resist the factored axial load and bending moment and provide adequate stability and ductility. The required cross-sectional area is obtained by using an axial load design equation or a stress-block diagram.

Determine the required reinforcement ratio: This is the ratio of steel area to concrete area that is needed to resist the factored shear force and prevent shear failure. The required reinforcement ratio is obtained by using a shear design equation or a shear stress-strain relationship.

Determine the required reinforcement arrangement: This is the distribution and orientation of the steel bars or wires that is needed to satisfy the minimum and maximum reinforcement ratios, the minimum and maximum spacing limits, and the bond and anchorage requirements. The required reinforcement arrangement includes the number, size, shape, and grade of the longitudinal bars, the number, size, shape, and grade of the transverse bars, etc.

Determine the required detailing: This is the arrangement and placement of the reinforcement that is needed to ensure the proper performance and durability of the foundation or retaining wall. The required detailing includes the type, size, shape, and grade of the reinforcement, the cover depth, the bend radius, the splice length, the development length, the anchorage length, the lap length, the bar spacing, the crack control, the corrosion protection, etc.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed some of the basics and applications of reinforced concrete mechanics and design. We have seen how reinforced concrete is composed of concrete and steel that work together to form a composite material that can resist various types of loads and stresses. We have also seen how reinforced concrete structures can be designed using different principles and methods that ensure safety, serviceability, economy, and aesthetics. We have also seen how reinforced concrete structures can be used for different purposes, such as beams and slabs, columns and walls, foundations and retaining walls, etc.

If you want to learn more about reinforced concrete mechanics and design, you should definitely read the book Reinforced Concrete Mechanics And Design by James G. MacGregor and James K. Wight. This book is one of the best textbooks on the subject, as it covers both theoretical and practical aspects of reinforced concrete in a clear and comprehensive manner. You can get a free pdf copy of this book online by clicking on this link https://www.academia.edu/37168701/Reinforced_Concrete_Mechanics_and_Design_7th_Edition. You can also access other related books and papers on this website.

## FAQs

Here are some common questions and answers related to reinforced concrete mechanics and design:

What are the advantages and disadvantages of reinforced concrete?

Some of the advantages of reinforced concrete are:

It has high strength and durability

It has good fire resistance and thermal insulation

It has good sound absorption and vibration damping

It can be molded into various shapes and sizes

It can be recycled and reused

Some of the disadvantages of reinforced concrete are:

It has low tensile strengt